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Lock-in Modules

The lock-detectors let you modulate and demodulate any of the input and output signals of Nanonis Tramea™ with a frequency up to 40 kHz and making use of the high resolution and high precision 20-bit outputs. With the multi-frequency option a single module can demodulate up to 8 harmonics of the same signal or independent input signals. Up to 8 lock-in detector modules can be used independently from each other when the generation of multiple frequencies is required. The advantage of an internal lock-in detector over an external device is 
  • Higher resolution and dynamic range
  • Multifrequency and multi-input operation
  • Over 120 dB linearity
  • Over 100 dB dynamic reserve
  • No need for gain and attenuation switching
  • Steeper filters (up to 8. order) 
  • Up to 8 independent modules
  • Synchronization with data acquisition when using Sync filtering
  • Integration avoids errors due to insufficient settling time with slow filter responses 
  • no additional noise source through external cabling
  • no potential grounding problems
  • flexible and simple setup
  • Guided filter set-up utility
  • Ability to turn on and off the excitation through software during the experiment
Applications range from regular transport measurements to multi-terminal Hall measurements, multifrequency measurements, simultaneous data acquisition with different time constants, dI/dV, inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS), measurements of open and closed loop transfer functions and every type of phase sensitive measurements.

  Lock-in Specifications
Number:                                                 Up to 8 independent dual-phase lock-in amplifiers
Modulation frequency range:                100 mHz - 40 kHz
Demodulation frequency range:            100 mHz - 100 kHz
Demodulators:                                        Up to 8 dual-phase demodulators assignable to any carrier
Frequency resolution:                            10 nHz
Phase resolution:                                    22 fRad
Demodulator settings:                             independent for each demodulator
Demodulator harmonic:                           1 - 32
Demodulator filter cut-off frequency:     100 mHz - 20 kHz
Demodulator filter slope:                         6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48 dB/oct
Demodulator output resolution:               32-bit
Demodulator output data rate:                1 MS/s
Sync filter frequency range:                  100 mHz - 40 kHz
Linearity:                                                 120 dB
Dynamic reserve:                                    >100 dB

  Lock-in packages:
  • LD5-1: One signal generator, two demodulators
  • LD5-2: Two signal generators, two demodulators for each signal generator
  • LD5-4: Four signal generators, eight demodulators assignable to any signal generator and input
  • LD5-8: Eight signal generators, eight demodulators assignable to any signal generator and input
  • LD5-MF: Multi-demodulator and multi-input option for LD5-1 and LD5-2 with eight demodulators assignable to any signal generator and input

  Lock-in upgrade packages:
  • LD5UG1-2: Upgrade from LD5-1 to LD5-2
  • LD5UG1-4: Upgrade from LD5-1 to LD5-4
  • LD5UG1-8: Upgrade from LD5-1 to LD5-8
  • LD5UG2-4: Upgrade from LD5-2 to LD5-4
  • LD5UG2-8: Upgrade from LD5-2 to LD5-8
  • LD5UG4-8: Upgrade from LD5-4 to LD5-8
  • LD5UG1MF-2MF: Upgrade from LD5-1 with LD5-MF option to LD5-2MF
  • LD5UG1MF-4: Upgrade from LD5-1 with LD5-MF option to LD5-4 (includes LD5-MF option)
  • LD5UG1MF-8: Upgrade from LD5-1 with LD5-MF option to LD5-8 (includes LD5-MF option)
  • LD5UG2MF-4: Upgrade from LD5-2 with LD5-MF option to LD5-4 (includes LD5-MF option)
  • LD5UG2MF-8: Upgrade from LD5-2 with LD5-MF option to LD5-4 (includes LD5-MF option)

Figure: Linearity measurement showing 120 dB usable dynamic range. The measurement is done with an input range of +-10 V (no input gain). An attenuator at the output is used for the lower left part of the curve, in order to avoid limitations due to the limited output resolution below -120 dB

Figure: Dynamic reserve measured with a 100 uV input signal. The frequency of the signal is swept from 1 Hz to 10 kHz, while a 10 V, 1 kHz signal is applied on the same input. 100 dB dynamic reserve are easily achieved even very close to the frequency of the interfering signal demonstrating the excellent signal recovery capability of the lock-in module. Harmonics are due to distortion components and not to lock-in filtering.


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